Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a technique that can be used during in vitro fertilization to test embryos for a variety of genetic disorders.
PGD testing is done prior to the transfer of the embryos into the uterus. This potentially reduces the risk of having a child with a serious inherited genetic disorder. PGD is performed in the laboratory by removing a single cell from the embryo. The cell is then analyzed for the presence of genetic disorders. The genetically normal embryos are then implanted into the uterine cavity. PGD can benefit couples at risk of passing on a genetic disease or condition.
PGD can benefit couples who:
- Have recurrent pregnancy loss due to genetic abnormalities
- Are carriers of single-gene defects
- Are carriers of sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities
- Have a family history of genetic disorders
- Have recurrent failed IVF cycles
- Have advanced maternal age (35 years and older)
PGD can also be used for the purpose of gender selection.
PGD is an elective procedure. Most insurance companies do not cover the cost of testing. Testing ranges from $3,000 to $6,000, depending on the genetic condition. Although PGD can be beneficial in implanting normal embryos, there are risks associated with this procedure. Not all disorders can be detected with PGD. Once a patient becomes pregnant, chorionic villi sampling (CVS) and/or amniocentesis testing may be required to further rule out chromosomal abnormalities.